Part I Writing (30 minutes)
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the topic: Precious Water. You should write at least 150 words following the outline given below:
Part II Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning) (15 minutes)
Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1. For questions 1-7, choose the best answer from the four choices marked A),B),C) and D). For question 8-10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.
Pollution: A Life and Death Issue
One of the main themes of Planet under Pressure is the way many of the Earth's environmental crises reinforce one another. Pollution is an obvious example-we do not have the option of growing food, or finding enough water, on a squeaky-clean planet, but on one increasingly tarnished and trashed by the way we have used it so far.
Cutting waste and clearing up pollution cost money. Yet time and again it is the quest for wealth that generates much of the mess is the first place. Living in a way that is less damaging to the Earth is not easy, but it is vital, because pollution is pervasive and often life-threatening.
Air: the World Health Organization (WHO) says three million people are killed worldwide by outdoor air pollution annually from vehicles and industrial emissions, and 1.6 million indoors through using solid fuel. Most are in poor countries.
Water: diseases carried in water are responsible for 80% of illnesses and deaths in developing countries, killing a child every eight seconds. Each year 2.1 million people die from diarrhoeal (痢疾的) diseases associated with poor water.
Soil: contaminated land is a problem in industrialized countries, where former factories and power stations can leave waste like heavy metals in the soil. It can also occur in developing countries, sometimes used for dumping pesticides. Agriculture can pollute land with pesticides, nitrate-rich fertilizers and slurry from livestock. And when the contamination reaches rivers it damages life there, and can even create dead zones off the coast, as in the Gulf of Mexico.
Chemicals are a frequent pollutant. When we think of chemical contamination it is often images of events like Bhopal that come to mind. But the problem is widespread. One study says 7～20% of cancers are attributable to poor air and pollution in homes and workplaces. The WHO, concerned about chemicals that persist and build up in the body, especially in the young, says we may "be conducting a large-scale experiment with children's health".
Some man-made chemicals, endocrine (内分泌) disruptors like phthalates (酞酸盐) and nonylphenol-a breakdown product of spermicides (杀精子剂), cosmetics and detergents-are blamed for causing changes in the genitals of some animals. Affected species include polar bears-so not even the Arctic is immune. And the chemicals climb the food chain, from fish to mammals, and to us.
About 70,000 chemicals are on the market, with around 1,500 new ones appearing annually. At least 30,000 are thought never to have been comprehensively tested for their possible risks to people.
At first glance, the plastic buckets stacked in the corner of the environmental NGO office look like any others. But the containers are an unlikely weapon in one poor community's fight against oil companies which they say are responsible for widespread ill-health caused by years of pollution. The vessels are used by a network of local volunteers, known as the Bucket Brigade, to gather air samples in neighborhoods bordering oil refineries, as part of a campaign to monitor and document air pollution which they believe is coming from the plants.
In South Africa, as in many developing and newly industrialized countries, legislation on air pollution has failed to keep pace with mushrooming industries. So local residents, like many in poor communities around the globe, have faced the problem of investigating their claim that industries on their doorsteps are making them sick.
But the snag is that modern society demands many of them, and some are essential for survival. So while we invoke the precautionary principle, which always recommends erring on the side of caution, we have to recognize there will be trade-offs to be made.
The pesticide DDT does great damage to wildlife and can affect the human nervous system, but can also be effective against malaria (疟疾). Where does the priority lie?
The industrialized world has not yet cleaned up the mess it created, but it is reaping the benefits of the pollution it has caused. It can hardly tell the developing countries that they have no right to follow suit.
Another complication in tackling pollution is that it does not respect political frontiers. There is a U.N. convention on trans-boundary air pollution, but that cannot cover every problem that can arise between neighbors, or between states which do not share a border. Perhaps the best example is climate change-the countries of the world share one atmosphere, and what one does can affect everyone.
For One and All.
One of the principles that are supposed to apply here is simple-the polluter pays. Sometimes it is obvious who is to blame and who must pay the price, but it is not always straightforward to work out just who is the polluter, or whether the rest of us would be happy to pay the price of stopping the pollution.
One way of cleaning up after ourselves would be to throw less away, designing products to be recycled or even just to last longer.
Previous generations worked on the assumption that discarding our waste was a proper way to get rid of it, so we used to dump nuclear materials and other potential hazards at sea, confident they would be dispersed in the depths.
We now think that is too risky because, as one author wrote, "there's no such place as 'away', and there's no such person as the 'other'."
Despite recent improvements, however, the health problems are still there. A 2002 medical study, carried out by Durban's Nelson Mandela School of Medicine and a U.S. university, found that an abnormally high 52% of students and teachers at a primary school bordering the Engen plant suffered from asthma (哮喘). It found that increases in air pollution tended to aggravate asthma symptoms in children.
The petrol producers do not dispute the findings but argue that researchers were unable to establish a causal link between air pollution and the high prevalence of asthma among the school population.
For the community, the next step is to take legal action. But, according to internationally recognized environmentalist Bobby Peek, targeting the companies would be difficult as it would be near-impossible to prove that illnesses suffered were caused by pollution coming from a particular plant.
Mr. Peek, who grew up beneath Engen's stacks, says the activists are now considering taking action against the authorities. "We are now looking at suing the government on constitutional grounds, for failing to ensure our right to protection from a harmful environment as stipulated in the constitution," he said.
A new batch (批) of environmental laws, the National Air Quality Management Act, has just been passed by the South African parliament to replace outdated 1965 legislation with tighter controls and tougher sanctions.
Martinus van Schalkwyk, the minister of environmental affairs and tourism, visited the south Durban basin earlier this year and said there were measures in place to improve the situation. "I share the anger and frustration of this community. It is long overdue," he told the South African Broadcasting Corporation.
The local authorities have also established a "Multi-Point Plan" for the area. They say it is a powerful model for tackling pollution and points to a 40% reduction in sulphur dioxide emissions in recent years.
1. According to World Health Organization, how many people are killed by outdoor air pollution?
[A] 3 million
[B] 2.1 million
[C] 1.6 million
[D] 3.2 million
2. Land can be polluted by ________ from agriculture.
[A] heavy metals
[B] pesticides and nitrate-poor fertilizers
[C] slurry from livestock
3. What kind of animal affected by man-made chemicals is not referred in the passage?
[A] Polar bears.
4. What do local residents claim for?
[A] They are sick because of years of pollution.
[B] They are sick because of industries on their doorsteps.
[C] They are sick because of pesticides from agriculture.
[D] They are sick because of air pollution.
5. The pesticide DDT can be effective against ________.
[D] human nervous system
6. There is a U.N. convention that can cover ________.
[A] problem between neighbors
[B] problem between states which do not share a border
[C] problems on air pollution
[D] trans-boundary air pollution
7. What is not said to be a way of cleaning up after ourselves?
[A] Throw less away.
[B] Design recycled products.
[C] Don't use it again.
[D] Last longer.
8. It found that increases in air pollution tended to ________________________.
9. According to Bobby Peek, targeting the companies would be difficult as it would be near-impossible to prove that illnesses suffered were caused by ________________________.
10. Martinus van Schalkwyk, the minister of environmental affairs and tourism, visited the south Durban basin earlier this year and said there were measures in place to ________________________.Section
Part IV Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth) (25 minutes)
Directions: In this section, there is a short passage with 5 questions or incomplete statements. Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words on Answer Sheet 2.
Questions 47 to 51 are based on the following passage.
The bacteria that cause a common food-borne illness show low drug resistance in Australia, unlike similar strains from the United States and Europe, a study has found. Scientists behind the finding say Australia's de facto ban on certain antibiotics in poultry (家禽) and other livestock helps explain why.
In the study, researchers analyzed samples of Campylobacter jejuni (空肠弯曲杆菌) bacteria from 585 patients in five Australian states.
Scientists found that only 2 percent of the samples were resistant to ciprofloxacin (环丙沙星), one of the group of antibiotics known as fluoroquinolonones. By contrast, 18 percent of Campylobacter (弧形杆菌) samples in U.S. patients are immune to fluoroquinolonones, which have been used in the U.S. to prevent or treat respiratory (呼吸的) disease in poultry for a decade.
The study, led by Leanne Unicomb, a graduate student at Australian National University in Canberra, was published in the May issue of the journal Clinical Infectious Diseases.
"The findings add to the growing body of evidence suggestive of the problems of using fluoroquinolonones in food-producing animals," Unicomb wrote in an email.
Campylobacter is the most common food-borne disease in the U.S. and many other industrialized countries.
People can contract the pathogen (病原体) by consuming undercooked poultry or meat, raw milk, or contaminated (被污染的) water.
Symptoms include fever, vomiting, and diarrhea (腹泻). In rare cases, the disease can trigger paralysis or death.
"In most industrial countries Campylobacter is more commonly reported than Salmonella (沙门氏菌), a better-known cause of food poisoning," Unicomb said.
"The number of cases of Campylobacter has been on the rise in Australia since the early 90's."
In the U.S., about 1.4 million people contracted Campylobacter infections last year, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia.
While the infection rate in the U.S. has dropped over the last decade, the bacteria have grown more drug-resistant.
According to the CDC, surveys between 1986 and 1990 found no signs of resistance to the antibiotics in U.S. Campylobacter infections. But by 1997, strains resistant to the antibiotics accounted for 12 percent of human cases. In 2001 the figure climbed to 18 percent.
Public health experts say many factors contribute to Campylobacter's drug resistance; the widespread use of fluoroquinolonones by U.S. poultry farmers over the past decade is one of them.
Fluoroquinolones were first approved for use in humans by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1986. In 1995 the FDA granted poultry farmers permission to the use the drugs in livestock. Last year the FDA banned the antibiotic from food-producing animals, citing the concerns raised by public health experts over drug-resistant bacteria.
Frederick Angulo, an epidemiologist with the CDC, monitors the drug resistance of food-borne pathogens in the U.S. food supply. "The people who are most likely to get infected with food-borne diseases include the most vulnerable people in the population-infants and young children and also the elderly," he said. He says that Campylobacter infections are entirely preventable, as is the bacteria's antibiotic resistance. "In many ways what's occurring with Campylobacter is an indicator for a broader issue, which is...antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the food supply," he said.
47. Why do food-borne pathogens in Australia show low drug resistance?
48. In many industrialized countries, the most common food-borne disease is ________.
49. The food-borne disease may cause fever, vomiting, diarrhea and even ________.
50. The FDA banned the use of antibiotic from food-producing animals because public health experts were concerned about ________.
51. What does Angulo say about the bacteria's antibiotic resistance?
Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked [A],[B],[C] and [D]. You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the center.
Questions 52 to 56 are based on the following passage.
At some time in your life, you may have a strong desire to do something strange or terrible. However, chances are that you don't act on your impulse, but let it pass instead. You know that to commit the action is wrong in some way and that other people will not accept your behavior.
Perhaps the most interesting thing about the phenomenon of taboo behavior is how it can change over the years within the same society, how certain behavior and attitude once considered taboo can become perfectly acceptable and natural at another point in time. Topics such as death, for example, were once considered so upsetting and unpleasant that it was a taboo to even talk about them. Now with the publication of important books such as On Death and Dying and Learning to Say Goodbye, people have become more aware of the importance of expressing feelings about death and, as a result, are more willing to talk about this taboo subject.
One of the newest taboos in American society is the topic of fat. Unlike many other taboos, fat is a topic that Americans talk about constantly. It's not taboo to talk about fat; it's taboo to be fat. The "in" look is thin, not fat. In the work world, most companies prefer youthful-looking, trim executives to sell their images as well as their products to the public. The thin look is associated with youth, vigor, and success. The fat person, on the other hand, is thought of as lazy and lacking in energy, self-discipline, and self-respect. In an image-conscious society like the U.S., thin is "in", fat is "out".
It's not surprising, then, that millions of Americans have been obsessed with staying slim and "in shape". The pursuit of a youthful physical appearance is not, however, the sole reason for Americans' fascination with diet and exercise. Recent research has shown the critical importance of diet and exercise for personal health. As in most technologically developed nations, the life style of North Americans has changed dramatically during the course of the last century. Modern machines do all the physical labor that people were once forced to do by hand. Cars and buses transport us quickly from point to point. As a result of inactivity and disuse, people's bodies can easily become weak and vulnerable to disease. In an effort to avoid such a fate, millions of Americans are spending more of their time exercising.
52. From the passage we can infer taboo is ________.
[A] a strong desire to do something strange or terrible
[B] a crime committed on impulse
[C] behavior considered unacceptable in society's eyes
[D] an unfavorable impression left on other people
53. Based on the ideas presented in the passage we can conclude "being fat" ________ in American society.
[A] will always remain a taboo
[B] is not considered as a taboo by most people
[C] has long been a taboo
[D] may no longer be a taboo someday
54. The topic of fat is ________ many other taboo subjects.
[A] the same as
[B] different from
[C] more popular than
[D] less often talked about than
55. What does "thin is 'in', and fat is 'out'" mean?
[A] Thin is "inside", and fat is "outside".
[B] Thin is "diligent", and fat is "lazy".
[C] Thin is "youthful", and fat is "spiritless".
[D] Thin is "fashionable", and fat is "unfashionable".
56. Apart from this new understanding of the correlation between health and exercise, the main reason the passage gives for why so many Americans are exercising regularly is ________.
[A] their changed life style
[B] their eagerness to stay thin and youthful
[C] their appreciation of the importance of exercise
[D] the encouragement they have received from their companies
Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.
We can begin our discussion of "population as global issue" with what most persons mean when they discuss "the population problem": too many people on earth and a too rapid increase in the number added each year. The facts are not in dispute; it was quite right to employ the analogy that likened demographic growth to "a long, thin powder fuse that burns steadily and haltingly until it finally reaches the charge and explodes".
To understand the current situation, which is characterized by rapid increases in population, it is necessary to understand the history of population trends. Rapid growth is a comparatively recent phenomenon. Looking back at the 8,000 years of demographic history, we find that populations have been virtually stable or growing very slightly for most of human history. For most of our ancestors, life was hard, often nasty, and very short. There was high fertility in most places, but this was usually balanced by high mortality. For most of human history, it was seldom the case that one in ten persons would live past forty, while infancy and childhood were especially risky periods. Often, societies were in clear danger of extinction because death rates could exceed their birthrates. Thus, the population problem throughout most of history was how to prevent extinction of the human race.
This pattern is important to notice. Not only does it put the current problems of demographic growth into a historical perspective, but it suggests that the cause of rapid increase in population in recent years is not a sudden enthusiasm for more children, but an improvement in the conditions that traditionally have caused high mortality.
Demographic history can be divided into two major periods: a time of long, slow growth which extended from about 8000 B.C. till approximately 1650 A.D. In the first period of some 9,600 years, the population increased from some 8million to 500 million in 1650. Between 1650 and 1975, the population has increased from 500 million to more than 4 billion. And the population reached 6.2 billion throughout the world by the year 2000. One way to appreciate this dramatic difference in such abstract numbers is to reduce the time frame to something that is more manageable. Between 8000 B.C. and 1650, an average of only 50,000 persons was being added annually to the world's population. At present, this number is added every six hours. The increase is about 80,000,000 persons annually.
57. The word "demographic" (Line 4, Para. 1) means ________.
[A] statistics of human
[B] surroundings study
[C] accumulation of human
[D] development of human
58. Which of the following demographic growth patterns is most suitable for the long thin powder fuse analogy?
[A] A virtually stable or slightly decreasing period and then a sudden explosion of population.
[B] A slow growth for a long time and then a period of rapid, dramatic increase.
[C] Too many people on earth and a few rapid increase in the number added each year.
[D] A long period when death rates exceed birthrates and then a short period with higher fertility and lower mortality.
59. During the first period of demographic history, societies were often in danger of extinction because ________.
[A] only one in ten persons could live past 40
[B] there was higher mortality than fertility in most places
[C] it was too dangerous to have babies due to the poor conditions
[D] our ancestors had little enthusiasm for more children
60. Which statement is TRUE about population increase?
[A] There might be an increase of 2.2 billion persons from 1975 to the year 2000.
[B] About 50,000 babies are born annually at present.
[C] Between 8000 B.C. and the present, the population increase is about 80,000,000 persons each year.
[D] The population increased faster between 8000 B.C. and 1650 than between 1650 and the present.
61. The author of the passage intends to ________.
[A] warn people against the population explosion in the near future
[B] compare the demographic growth pattern in the past with that after 1650
[C] find out the cause for rapid increase in population in recent years
[D] present us a clear and complete picture of the demographic growth
Part V Error Correction (15 minutes)
Directions: This part consists of a short passage. In this passage, there are altogether 10 mistakes, one in each numbered line. You may have to change a word, add a word or delete a word. Mark out the mistakes and put the corrections in the blanks provided. If you change a word, cross it out and write the correct word in the corresponding blank. If you add a word, put an insertion mark (∧) in the right place and write the missing word in the blank. If you delete a word, cross it out and put a slash (/) in the blank.
Television is rapidly becoming the literature of our periods. 1. time/times/period Many of the arguments having used for the study of literature 2.______________ as a school subject are valid for ∧ study of television. 3.______________ Are you worried about the rising crime rate? If you are, then you probably know that your house,possessions and persons are increasingly in danger of suffering from the tremendous rise in the cases of burglar 62. ________ and assault. Figures indicate that it is an ever-increasing 63. ________ crime rate but it is only too easy to imagine "it will never happen to me". Unfortunately, statistics show it is 64. ________ really can happen to you and, if you live in the large city, you run twice the risk of being a victim. 65. ________ Fortunately, there is something definite what you 66. ________ can do. Protect Alarms can help to protect your house with a burglar alarm system which is effective, simple to operate and easily affordable. You may remember that 67. ________ possessing a burglar alarm is no indication which your 68. ________ house is packed with valuable possessions. It quite simply indicates of unwelcome visitors that yours is one 69. ________ house they will not break into easily so they carry on to an unprotect house where their job is made a lot easier. 70. ________ Send now for our free leaflet telling you how we can protct and alarm your house quickly, easily and cheaply. Complete out and tear off the slip below and 71. ________ post it to us. Postage is free.
Part VI Translation (5 minutes)
Directions: Complete the following sentences on Answer Sheet 2 by translating into English the Chinese given in brackets.
72. Southern Africa has ________________________ (该病的患病率最高，几乎是亚洲的两倍).
73. It is time the authorities concerned________________________ (采取适当措施来解决交通).
74. In my opinion, playing video games ________________________ (既花费大量的时间也有害健康).
75. When it comes to education, ________________________ (多数人都认为教育是终生学习).
76. The situation will worsen ________________________ (除非采取措施加以阻止).
Part I Writing
No one doubts the importance of water. Human beings live on water, animals live on water, plants live on water and all living things live on water. You can’t imagine what would happen if there were no water in the world!
China is one of the countries in the world that are badly short of water. Water problem has become more acute in recent years with the increase of water consumption and pollution. In big cities, the water problem has become even worse. With the growth of population, more and more water is needed. With the development of the industry, a large quantity of water has been and is being polluted. Water pollution is the most serious problem that China is facing. It has spread to rivers, lakes, and even the oceans.
In order to survive, man has to be wise enough to treasure water and try to prevent it from being polluted. Man should also know that all resources in the world are limited, including water. Make good use of them, otherwise, man will be punished by nature. To treasure water is to treasure life; to protect our environment is to protect ourselves.
Part II Reading Comprehension(Skimming and Scanning)
1. A 细节题。根据题干信息词World Health Organization定位到第三段Air: the World Health Organization(WHO)says three million people are killed worldwide by outdoor air pollution annually from vehicles and industrial emissions，即：世界卫生组织公布，全世界每年有3百万人死于室外空气污染，故选A。
2. C 细节题。根据题干信息词Land can be polluted定位到第五段第三句话Agriculture can pollute land with pesticides, nitrate-rich fertilizers and slurry from livestock，即：来自农业的杀虫剂、富含硝酸盐的化肥以及家畜带来的泥浆都会污染土地，故选C。
3. D 细节题。根据题干信息词man. made chemicals和affected定位到第一个小标题下第二段末句Affected species include polar bears—so not even the Arctic is immune. And the chemicals climb the food chain, from fish to mammals，and to us，即：受人造化学制品影响的种类包括北极熊、从鱼到哺乳动物的生物链，也包括人，未提到鸟，故选D。
4. B 细节题。根据题干信息词local residents定位到第一个小标题下的末句So local residents，like many in poor communities around the globe，have faced the problem of investigating their claim that industries on their doorsteps are making them sick，即：当地居民声称他们门前的工业导致他们生病，故选B。
5. A 细节题。根据题干信息词The pesticide DDT定位到第二个小标题下的第二段The pesticide DDT does great damage to wildlife and can affect the human nervous system，but can also be effective against malaria(疟疾)，即：杀虫剂DDT会伤害野生动植物并且能影响人类的神经系统，但对预防疟疾是很有效的，故选A。
6. C 细节题。根据题干信息词a U.N. convention定位到第二个小标题末段第二句话There is a U.N. convention on trans-boundary air pollution, but that cannot cover every problem that can arise between neighbors，or between states which do not share a border，即：联合国在跨边界的空气污染上有协定，但是不包括邻国之间出现的每个问题，也不包括不接壤的州之间出现的问题，故选C。
7. C 细节题。根据题干信息词a way of cleaning up after ourselves定位到第三个小标题第二段One way of cleaning up after ourselves would be to throw less away，designing products to be recycled or even just to last longer，即：清洁的方法可以是少丢弃一些，设计可循环的产品或使用持久一些，未提到不再使用，故选C。
8. aggravate asthma symptoms in children。细节题。根据题干定位到第四个小标题首段末旬It found that increases in air pollution tended to aggravate asthma symptoms in children，即：空气污染的增加恶化孩子的哮喘症状，故得答案。
9. pollution coming from a particular plant。细节题。根据题干定位到第四个小标题第三段末句But，according to…prove that illnesses suffered were caused by pollution coming from a particular plant，即：证明疾病是由一种来自特殊植物的污染而造成的，故得答案。
10. improve the situation。细节题。根据题干定位到倒数第二段首句Martinus van Schalkwyk…said there were measures in place to improve the situation，即：环境和观光事业部长Schalkwyk参观了德尔班南部的盆地，并指出还是有措施可以改善现状的，故得答案。
Part IV Reading Comprehension(Reading in Depth)
47. Because Australia bans the use of certain antibiotics in livestock.
根据题干中的关键词Australia和low drug resistance定位到文章开头，可知一项研究发现，在澳大利亚，导致常见食源性疾病的细菌抗药性很低，这与美国和欧洲的情况有所不同;做出该发现的 科学家表示，澳大利亚禁止对家畜使用特定抗生素，这有助于解释上述情况。
根据题干中的关键词industrialized countries和most common定位到第六段，可知弧形杆菌是美国和其他许多工业化国家中最常见的食源性疾病。
49. paralysis or death
50. drug-resistant bacteria
根据题干中的关键词food-producing animals和public health expels定位到倒数第二段，可知美国食品及药物管理局于去年禁止给产肉动物使用抗生素，其原因在于公共卫生专家对抗药细菌表示担忧。
51. It’s entirely preventable.
根据题干中的关键词Angulo和bacteria’s antibiotic resistance定位到最后一段倒数第二句，可知Angulo认为弧形杆菌感染完全可以预防，而细菌对抗生素的抗药性也是如此。
52. C 推断题。taboo意为“禁忌，避讳”，结合文章内容也可推断出，taboo是那些社会无法接受的行为，所以C正确。
53. D 推断题。由文章第二段第一句可知，在同一个社会中禁忌也是会改变的，以前被认为是禁忌的行为，后来可能变得非常自然、可接受，由此推断，肥胖在将来可能不再是什么禁忌，所以D正确。第三段第一句说fat是one of the newest taboos，排除干扰项C。
54. B 推断题。由文章第三段第二句可知，美国如今的肥胖禁忌跟其他的禁忌不同——人们经常讨论关于肥胖的话题，所以B正确。
55. D 语义题。解答此题的关键在于理解in与out在此处的含义：前者指“流行的，时髦的”，后者指“过时的，不再时髦的”。另外，由文章第三段中对thin及fat的描述也可推知，前者比较流行，后者过时，故选D。
56. B 推断题。由文章第三、四段可知，美国人认为肥胖是“禁忌”，他们追求苗条和年轻，所以热衷于锻炼，由此推断，B正确。
57. A 语义题。由文章第一段中的the population problem及rapid increase in the number可知，demographic的含义应该与“人口”和“数量”有关，而-graphic表示“写、画、记录的”，由此推断A(人口统计)正 确。B(环境研究)，C(人口的积聚)，D(人类的发展)，均与文意不符，故排除。
58. B 推断题。由文章第二段第二句和第三句的virtually stable or growing very slightly for most of human history可知，文章第一段最后一句的引申意思是：在人口缓慢稳定的增长之后会出现人口的激增。四个选项之中，只有B与其最相符，故选B。
59. B 细节题。由文章第二段倒数第二句可知，在人口统计学历史上的第一个阶段，社会常有覆灭的危险是因为很多地方人口死亡率比出生率高，所以B正确。
60. A 推断题。由文章第四段第三、四句可知，l650到1975年，世界人口增长至40亿，到2000年已经增长至62亿，由此可知，从l975年至2000年世界人口增长了22亿，故选A。
61. D 推断题。通读全文可知，文章主要描述了世界人口增长的历史和现状，作者的目的在于使读者能够清楚地了解世界人口的增长状况，所以D正确。B项对照历史上人口增长的两种模式是作者达到目的的手段。
Part V Error Correction
Part VI Translation
72. the highest rates of this disease，almost twice that of Asia
“患病率”可用the rates of this disease来表示;“几乎……”应该作“患病率”的补语，可译为省略结构;“两倍”应为twice，此处指的是南非的发病率是亚洲的发病率的两倍，因 此应译为twice that of Asia，其中that指代的就是the rates of this disease。
73. took proper steps to solve the traffic problems
该句包含it is time…的结构，该结构一般表示虚拟，其从句要用一般过去时。“采取措施”为从句谓语，因此要译为took steps或took measures;“来解决交通问题”为不定式表示目的，其中“解决问题”可译为固定动宾搭配solve problems。此处还可译为took proper measures to solve the traffic problems。
74. not only takes much time but is also harmful to health
由给出的中英文可知，playing video games应为句子主语，其谓语动词应采用单数第三人称形式。“既……又……”应译为not only…but also;“花费(时间)”可译为take，“有害(健康)”可译为be harmful to。
75. the majority of people believe that it is a lifetime study
结合给出的中英文可知，“教育是终生学习”可译为“认为”的宾语从句。“多数人”应译为the majority of people，“认为”可译为think或believe。而“终生学习”则为a lifetime study。
76. unless some steps are taken to stop it