A study of art history might be a good way to learn more about a culture than is possible to learn in general history classes. Most typical history courses concentrate on politics, economics, and war. But art history focuses on much more than this because art reflects not only the political values of a people, but also religious beliefs, emotions, and psychology. In addition, information about the daily activities of our ancestors—or of people very different from our own—can be provided by art. In short, art expresses the essential qualities of a time and a place, and a study of it clearly offer us a deeper understanding than can be found in most history books.
In history books, objective information about the political life of a country is presented; that is, facts about politics are given, but opinions are not expressed. Art, on the other hand, is subjective: it reflects emotions and opinions. The great Spanish painter Francisco Goya was perhaps the first truly “political” artist. In his well-known painting The Third of May 1808, he criticized the Spanish government for its misuse of power over people. Over a hundred years later, symbolic images were used in Pablo Picasso’s Guernica to express the horror of war. Meanwhile, on another continent, the powerful paintings of Diego Rivera, Jose Clemente Orozco, and David Alfaro Siqueiros—as well as the works of Alfredo Ramos Martines—depicted these Mexican artists’ deep anger and sadness about social problems.
In the same way, art can reflect a culture’s religious beliefs. For hundreds of years in Europe, religious art was almost the only type of art that existed. Churches and other religious buildings were filled with paintings that depicted people and stories from the Bible. Although most people couldn’t read, they could still understand biblical stories in the pictures on church walls. By contrast, one of the main characteristics of art in the Middle East was (and still is) its absence of human and animal images. This reflects the Islamic belief that statues are unholy.
1.More can be learned about a culture from a study of art history than general history because art history__.
A.show us the religious and emotions of a people in addition to political values.
B.provide us with information about the daily activities of people in the past.
C.give us an insight into the essential qualities of a time and a place.
D.all of the above.
2.Art is subjective in that__.
A.a personal and emotional view of history is presented through it.
B.it can easily rouse our anger or sadness about social problems.
C.it will find a ready echo in our hearts.
D.both B and C.
3.Which of the following statements is true according to the passage?
A.Unlike Francisco Goya, Pablo and several Mexican artists expressed their political opinions in their paintings.
B.History books often reveal the compilers’ political views.
C.Religious art remained in Europe for centuries the only type of art because most people regarded the Bible as the Holy Book.
D.All the above mentioned.
4.The passage is mainly discussing__.
A.the difference between general history and art history.
B.The making of art history.
C.What can we learn from art.
D.The influence of artists on art history.
5.In may be concluded from this passage that__.
A.Islamic artists have had to create architectural decorations with images of flowers or geometric forms.
B.History teachers are more objective than general history.
C.It is more difficult to study art history than general history.
D.People and stories from the Bible were painted on churches and other buildings in order to popularize the Bible.
答案：D D D C A
If the old maxim that the customer is always right still has meaning, then the airlines that ply the world’s busiest air route between London and Paris have a flight on their hands.
The Eurostar train service linking the UK and French capitals via the Channel Tunnel is winning customers in increasing numbers. In late May, it carried its one millionth passenger, having run only a limited service between London, Paris and Brussels since November 1994, starting with two trains a day in each direction to Paris and Brussels. By 1997, the company believes that it will be carrying ten million passengers a year, and continue to grow from there.
From July, Eurostar steps its service to nine trains each way between London and Paris, and five between London and Brussels. Each train carries almost 800 passengers, 210 of them in first class.
The airlines estimate that they will initially lose around 15%-20% of their London-Paris traffic to the railways once Eurostar starts a full service later this year (1995), with 15 trains a day each way. A similar service will start to Brussels. The damage will be limited, however, the airlines believe, with passenger numbers returning to previous levels within two to three years.
In the short term, the damage caused by the 1 million people-levels traveling between London and Paris and Brussels on Eurostar trains means that some air services are already suffering. Some of the major carriers say that their passenger numbers are down by less than 5% and point to their rivals-Particularly Air France-as having suffered the problems. On the Brussels route, the railway company had less success, and the airlines report anything from around a 5% drop to no visible decline in traffic.
The airlines’ optimism on returning traffic levels is based on historical precedent. British Midland, for example, points to its experience on Heathrow Leeds Bradford service which saw passenger numbers fold by 15% when British Rail electrified and modernized the railway line between London and Yorkshire. Two years later, travel had risen between the two destinations to the point where the airline was carrying record numbers of passengers.
1.British airlines confide in the fact that__.
A.they are more powerful than other European airlines.
B.their total loss won’t go beyond a drop of 5% passengers.
C.their traffic levels will return in 2-3 years.
D.traveling by rail can never catch up with traveling by air.
2.The author’s attitude towards the drop of passengers may be described as__.
3.In the passage, British Rail (Para 6) is mentioned to__.
A.provide a comparison with Eurostar.
B.support the airlines’ optimism.
C.prove the inevitable drop of air passengers.
D.call for electrification and modernization of the railway.
4.The railway’s Brussels route is brought forth to show that__.
A.the Eurostar train service is not doing good business.
B.the airlines can well compete with the railway.
C.the Eurostar train service only caused little damage.
D.only some airlines, such as Air France, are suffering.
5.The passage is taken from the first of an essay, from which we may well predict that in the following part the author is going to__.
A.praise the airlines’ clear-mindedness.
B.warn the airlines of high-speed rail services.
C.propose a reduction of London/Paris flights.
D.advise the airlines to follow British Midland as their model.